1. Name the first African American labor union chartered by the American Federation of Labor.
2. What event sparked the 1960s Civil Rights Movement?
3. Name the speech that is considered the greatest speech of the twentieth-century.
4. What is considered Malcolm x’s most famous speech.
5. Name the principal student organization of the American Civil Rights Movement.
6. Who was the female activist and leader who helped to organized and promote the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)?
7. Name the prominent twentieth-century African-American civil rights leader who organized the March on Washington Movement and founded the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
8. Name the most distinctive musical sound in America in the 1960s associated with Detroit.
9. Who wrote the book Invisible Man?
10. What is considered the greatest black political accomplishment during the first decade of the twenty-first century?
1. The International Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was the first African American labor union chartered by the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Pullman porters, dissatisfied with their treatment by the Chicago-based Pullman Company, sought the assistance of A. Philip Randolph and others in organizing their own union, founded in New York in 1925.
2. The 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott set in Montgomery, Alabama, the cradle of the Confederacy, ignited a mass movement to address the indignities of segregation. The Montgomery Bus Boycott became the movement with capital M and propelled the civil rights movement into the national consciousness.
3. Martin Luther King’s I have A Dream Speech was undoubtedly his best known speech. More than just a popular address, this speech would resonate in the hearts and minds of Americans for forever. The speech has attained iconic status. King delivered a speech elegantly structured, commanding in tone, and altogether more profound than anything heard on American soil in nearly a century.
4. “The Ballot or the Bullet” is the name of a public speech given by Malcolm X. Malcolm X advised African-Americans to judiciously exercise their right to vote, but he cautioned that if the government continued to prevent African-Americans from attaining full equality, it might be necessary for them to take up arms. “The Ballot or the Bullet” was ranked 7th in the top 100 American speeches of the 20th century by 137 leading scholars of American public address.
5. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee or SNCC (pronounced “snick”) was created on the campus of Shaw University in Raleigh to coordinate sit-ins, support their leaders, and publicize their activities. Out of SNCC came leaders, such as former Washington, D.C. mayor Marion Barry, Congressman John Lewis and NAACP chairman Julian Bond. Together with hundreds of other students, they left a lasting impact on American history.
6. Ella Baker worked as a field secretary in 1940 with the NAACP in 1940. In 1957, Baker helped organize Martin Luther King’s new organization, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Later, she wanted to assist the new student activists and organized a meeting at Shaw University for the student leaders of the sit-ins protest in the 1960s. From that meeting, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was born.
7. Asa Philip Randolph was a prominent twentieth-century African-American civil rights leader and the founder of both the March on Washington and the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, a landmark for labor and particularly for African-American labor organizing.
8. Motown’s music was crafted with an ear towards pop appeal. The company specialized in a type of soul music it referred to with the trademark “The Motown Sound”. The Motown Sound was typified by a number of characteristics: the use of tambourines to accent the back beat, prominent and often melodic electric bass guitar lines, distinctive melodic and chord structures, and a call and response singing style that originated in gospel music.
9. Ralph Waldo Ellison was a novelist, literary critic, scholar and writer. Ellison is best known for his novel Invisible Man, which won the National Book Award in 1953.
10. Barack Obama was elected the 44th president of the United States on Tuesday, sweeping away a significant racial barrier in American politics with ease as the country chose him as its first black chief executive. “It’s been a long time coming, but tonight… change has come to America,” Obama told a jubilant crowd at a victory rally in Chicago. His rival John McCain, said, “This is a historic election, and I recognize the significance it has for African-Americans and for the special pride that must be theirs tonight.